The nature of ZOPA depends on the nature of the negotiations.  In a (competitive) negotiation where participants try to share a „solid cake,“ it is more difficult to find solutions acceptable to both parties because both parties want to claim the cake as much as possible. Distribution negotiations on a single topic tend to be zero sums — there is a winner and a loser. There is no overlap between the parties; Therefore, no mutually beneficial agreement is possible. The best thing to do – sometimes – is to split the desired result in half. The search process for this area requires a bit of detective work for it to work. It begins with a proposal from a person, business unit or organization known as a „partisan.“ In essence, it is the person who puts an offer on the table. The adoption of a proposal is called a „prospectus.“ This is the person or organization that considers the merits of the offer or proposal. The person concerned will accept the proposal, make a counter-proposal/counter-offer or reject it altogether. This is where the game starts to have a lot of fun.
On the other hand, the buyer wants to pay the lowest amount possible, but he can consider a higher amount that he may be willing to pay. The maximum amount they are willing to pay is also called „booking price“ or „departure“ from the point of the buyer`s agreement. As the master`s course in negotiation has shown, interaction in a negotiation is to shape the perception of ZOPA through conviction and other tactical measures, as this will lead to an agreement. The Concept Zone of a Possible Agreement (ZOPA), also known as the Zone of Potential Agreement  or bargaining margin, describes the range of options available to two parties in the sale and negotiations when the respective minimum objectives of the parties overlap. In the absence of such an overlap, i.e. in the absence of a possibility of rational agreement, the opposite concept of noPA (no possible agreement) applies. Where there is a ZOPA, an agreement within the area is reasonable for both parties. Outside the zone, no trading volume should result in an agreement.
However, negative negotiating areas can be overcome if the negotiating parties are willing to learn about each other`s wishes and needs. Suppose Dave explains to Suzy that he wants to use the proceeds from the sale of the bike to buy new skis and ski equipment. Suzy has a pair of soft, high-quality skis that she would like to part with.