The agreement includes a commitment by all countries to reduce emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their climate change and adaptation efforts, while creating a framework to transparently monitor and report on countries` climate goals. The countries most affected by the effects of climate change will be low-lying countries, which are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise, and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation. But prosperous nations, like the United States, are also increasingly vulnerable.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, made a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.   175 parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its entry for signature.   On the same day, more than 20 countries made a declaration of intention to accede as soon as possible in order to accede in 2016. With ratification by the European Union, the agreement obtained enough parts to enter into force on 4 November 2016. At the 2015 Paris conference, at which the agreement was negotiated, developed countries reaffirmed their commitment to mobilize $100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020 and agreed to continue mobilizing $100 billion in financing per year until 2025.  The commitment relates to the existing plan to allocate $100 billion per year to assist developing countries for climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.
 After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. . . .